Sodium Azide

From Suicide Wiki
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 ― The gist of an anonymous post

Sodium azide (SA) is mainly used to prevent bacterial contamination in aqueous laboratory reagents and to generate gas in automobile airbag. It has been mentioned in murder cases, suicide cases, and accidental poisoning cases.

Simple, step-by-step instructions[edit]

There are many ways to commit suicide by sodium azide. The following is an easy, quick, and pain-free recipe.

1. Stick warning signs, cautioning hazmat or suicide by toxic sodium azide ⚠️.

2. Take 30 mg metoclopramide.

3. Wait 1 hour.

4. Dissolve 10 – 15 g sodium azide in 50 ml municipal tap water.

5. Drink the solution and relax on a bed, a couch, or a reclining chair.


⚠️ Let them know that you do not want to be resuscitated. Stick warning signs near your body cautioning hazmat or suicide by toxic sodium azide.

Sodium azide itself is fairly stable and can be handled under routine conditions without a significant risk of an explosion. There is no risk of explosion in aqueous solutions of sodium azide. The solid is, however, thermally unstable and if heated above 275 °C undergoes violent decomposition. In fact, sodium azide is used in airbags for this very reason. A vehicle, upon sensing an impact, will send an electrical charge that heats the sodium azide to high temperatures – causing the rapid formation of nitrogen gas.

Sodium azide is very toxic to aquatic life and may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. It forms explosive azides in contact with heavy metals (e.g., such as lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, or nickel) and liberates very toxic gas, hydrazoic acid, in contact with strong acids.

  • Never use a metal spatula to weigh out sodium azide. Use plastic, ceramic, or other materials.
  • If your weighing scale has a metal base, put a plastic cup on the scale, weigh it, add powder into cup till you get the amount you require.
  • Inhalation is a likely route of accidental exposure for sodium azide powder or sodium azide solution.
  • Clean the work area by wiping with soap and water once your work is done. Always wash your hands after your work is done.
  • Under no circumstances should you pour sodium azide solutions down the drain. Reaction with lead or copper pipes can build up highly explosive azide salts.

In a well-ventilated room or an open area, ingesting 10―15 g sodium azide does not endanger bystanders. However, attempting resuscitation on a person who has ingested sodium azide can expose those attempting help to serious danger. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation can result in the rescuer’s exposure to dangerous hydrazoic acid. The presence of hydrazoic acid which is released in the chemical reaction of azide with hydrochloric acid (in gastric lavage contents) cause a characteristic dull odour.

Those choosing to use azide to commit suicide must display a clear sign indicating that this substance has been used. This will help protect emergency medical staff or police from accidental toxic exposure. If vomiting has occurred, the toxic vomit must be avoided for the same reason. Antiemetic reduces the chance of not only vomiting but also exposure for first responders. Still, the Police Department and the Fire Department usually treat sodium azide poisoning with an abundance of caution, sometimes severely overreact.

(Nam, Kim, Cho, Chung, Lee & Kim, 2008) reported a lethal case of sodium azide ingestion. A 31-year-old comatose female was unconscious for 20 minutes with an empty bottle labeled sodium azide. She was transported to the emergency department. After 10 minutes, her blood pressure dropped to 80/50 mmHg. She developed cardiac arrest 15 minutes after arrival and expired in spite of 30 minutes of resuscitative effort. Subsequently, resuscitation team members incidentally suffered from sodium azide’ s exposure and developed eye discomfort, skin rashes parasthesias, pruritus, sore throat, and headache.

In June 2018, (Ciesla, Calello & Nelson, 2018) reported that a 24-year-old man in cardiac arrest was brought to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Resuscitation efforts were unsuccessful. Little was known about the patient, but the emergency physician was informed that the patient had ingested sodium azide (NaN3), which he had ordered online. The patient collapsed shortly after ingesting the sodium azide, approximately the same time police officers arrived at the patient’s home. No specific details were known about the patient’s ingestion.

Upon learning of the exposure to sodium azide, a member of the ED staff contacted the local poison control center for information on the proper course of action to ensure staff safety and limit exposure. Shortly thereafter, several of emergency medical technicians and police officers, who had responded to the emergency assistance call for this patient, presented to the ED with concerns of exposure. None of the exposed first responders experienced dizziness, light-headedness, or irritation, and after a period of observation in the ED, they were discharged home without further sequelae. All hospital staff involved in the patient’s care, including those who performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the patient and cleaned his room, were advised to use protective equipment when handling the patient and bodily secretions. None of the health care workers developed abnormal clinical findings. Given the hazard in conducting a full postmortem examination, the medical examiner opted to send blood, bile, urine, and vitreous humor out for analysis, but did not conduct a full postmortem examination. Notably, the stomach was not opened, and its contents were not exposed.

The deceased most likely had access to the PPH, considering that he committed suicide after the inorganic-salts chapter had been added.

How it works[edit]

As it was reported in Harvard University Medical School poisoning in 2009—dizziness, tachycardia, and fainting occur within seconds after sodium azide poisoning. Symptoms, including decreased mental status, dizziness, fainting, tingling, hypotension, and fainting, develop minutes after consuming sodium azide (Schwarz et al., 2014). Acute toxicity following exposure to sodium azide is manifested by nausea, vomiting, headache, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia, cardiac muscle ischaemia, and metabolic acidosis. The final stage of poisoning may be characterized by coma, bradycardia, convulsions, cardiorespiratory arrest, and, ultimately, death.

In the 1950s, sodium azide was used to treat hypertension because of its profound vasodilatory effects (a relaxant effect on the smooth muscles of peripheral blood vessels), resulting from the production of nitric oxide. Converted to nitric oxide and cyanides in erythrocytes, sodium azide is mainly metabolized in the liver and CNS (Rojek, Hydzik, Gomółka, Kula & Kłys, 2015). Liver damage had no effect on the lethality of azide. Unlike sodium nitrite, sodium azide does not generate methemoglobin ("Sodium azide [MAK Value Documentation, 2003", 2012)].

Sodium azide is primarily a mitochondrial toxin, which binds the electron transport chain, inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation. The resulting reduction in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, even in the presence of oxygen, results in metabolic failure. This mechanism of action is similar to that of cyanide, although sodium azide causes more pronounced vasodilation due to the in vivo conversion of some azide to the vasodilator nitric oxide. Some reports suggest that azide lethality is due to enhanced excitatory transmission from nitric oxide in the central nervous system (Ciesla, Calello & Nelson, 2018).

(Wiergowski et al., 2012) reported a 19-year-old man ingested 20 grams sodium azide. The largest concentration of azide ions were determined in the stomach content and vitreous humour, and much less one in whole blood, urine and kidney fluid. The report contained a photo[1|2|3] of hand shape (a) and livor mortis (b) of the deceased after suicidal intoxication with sodium azide.

Sodium azide[edit]

Sodium azide is an odorless, tasteless, water-soluble crystalline powder. Exposure can cause rapid breathing and heart rate, low blood pressure, loss of consciousness and respiratory failure leading to death. It is estimated that oral doses of sodium azide are 0.7–3.9 mg (blood-pressure reducing therapeutic doses), 20–180 mg (toxic doses), 700 mg–20 g (lethal doses). (Chang & Lamm, 2003) illustrated the dose-health effect diagram[1|2|3]. The authors also identified a total of 185 individual cases among the 38 publications having been exposded to sodium azide and hydrazoic acid[1|2|3], concluding 100% success rate in suicide cases.

The recommended dose from the PPH is 2 – 3 grams of the salt into 50 ml of distilled or demineralized water (do no use soda water) in a plastic or glass container. Taking 2 – 3 grams is certainly fatal, but it can take some time. Hence, the dose can be upped to 10 g for underweight persons and 15 g for overweight persons.

SA dose (dissolved in water)

• 10 – 15 g

Sodium azide density is 1.85 g/cm3. Assuming that one standard teaspoon holds about 5 cm3, the required dose is equivalent to (a bit more than) 1 teaspoons of sodium azide.


In order to prevent vomiting in suicide attempts, dopamine blockers are used. The reasons for doing so is that the mechanism by which sodium azide induce nausea and vomiting are iron overload as well as NO interaction with dopaminergic neurotransmitters (Liu, Liang & Soong, 2019). One of the well-used dopamine blocker antiemetics is metoclopramide. Metoclopramide goes by many commercial names—namely, Reglan, Plasil, and Primperan. The disadvantages of metoclopramide are (1) having gastro-prokinetic properties, which empties the acidic stomach form sodium azide; and (2) extrapyramidal symptoms that are extremely rare in low doses and relieved with diphenhydramine.

Purchasing antiemetic will also be the bulk of the money spent during this method. It’s feasible to successfully commit suicide without antiemetics. For example, a 27-year-old female laboratory assistant took 15g sodium azide, still about 11g were found in her stomach contents (Klug & Schneider, 1987) ; nevertheless, it’s possible to vomit hence fail (Łopaciński, Kołacinski & Winnicka, 2007), especially in small doses.

Stat dose (60 minutes before SA intake)

• 3 * 10 mg metoclopramide


Ahead regimen (48 hours before SA intake)

• 10 mg metoclopramide every 8 hours (i.e., 3 times per day) starting 48 hours in advance

Because the peak plasma concentration happens at about 1 – 2 hours after a single oral dose of metoclopramide, there’s no significant advantage of going through the ahead regimen (except mentally preparing for the attempt).

Another popular choice of antiemetic is domperidone. Domperidone too goes by many commercial names—namely, Motilium. Considering the affinity values (Ki) at the D2 receptor (Tonini et al., 2004), the interchangeable dose of domperidone is 10 – 15 mg, reaches at peak plasma level 30 minutes following oral administration (Heykants et al., 1981).

Stat dose (30 minutes before SA intake)

• 2 * 10 mg domperidone

If you can’t find the two mentioned antiemetics, don’t lose hope. Other alternatives for antiemetic are olanzapine, alizapramide, chlorpromazine, and prochlorperazine. As a rule of thumb, for the stat dose each in each of the antiemetics, double up or triple up the therapeutic daily dose of the antiemetic. For example, for the stat dose, in case the leaflet of the antiemetic advises 6 mg twice a day, take 12 mg or 18 mg (if you’re confidence you’ll have no side effect). As mentioned earlier, serotonin antagonists only (e.g., ondansetron) or antihistamins only (e.g., diphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate) antiemetics are not effective in sodium azide suicide method.

If you are on any of the following antipsychotics, you don’t need to take any antiemetic, because they already function as an antiemetic. The dose needed will depend on whether you take it regularly, the dose you’re prescribed, and your weight. (Seeman, 2006), (Kusumi, Boku and Takahashi, 2014), and (Li, L. Snyder and E. Vanover, 2016) reported affinity values (Ki) at the D2 receptors of antipsychotics. The lower the numbers next to the drugs, the more powerful antiemetic the substance is.

Drug class D2 antagonism
Receptor Binding Affinity of Dopamine Blockers
Antiemetics Domperidone (0.3–3.4 nM), Clebopride (2 nM), Metoclopramide (9.18 nM), Bromopride (14 nM), Alizapride (200 nM)
1st generation antipsychotics Benperidol (0.027 nM), Spiperone (0.053 nM), Droperidol (0.25 nM), Trifuperidol (0.4 nM), Haloperidol (2.0 nM), Chlorpromazine (2.6 nM), Bromperidol (2.1 nM), Prochlorperazine (6–8 nM), Levosulpiride (27–134 nM), Pipamperone (120 nM)
2nd generation antipsychotics Lurasidone (1.0 nM), Sestindole (2.7 nM), Paliperidone (2.8 nM), Risperidone (4.9 nM), Olanzapine (21 nM), Clozapine (144 nM), Quetiapine (245 nM)
Benzamide Tiapride (320 nM)

The above table proves that antipsychotic medicines actually facilitate suicide.


Using antacids (also known as acid regulators) is discouraged. It’d be best not to take antacid. The generation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) by the NaN3/catalase/H2O2 system was maximal at pH 5.0 (Ogino et al., 2001). Their results suggested that the oxidation of NaN3 by the catalase/H2O2 system generates unknown peroxynitrite-like reactive nitrogen intermediates, which contribute to tyrosine nitration.

Simply not using H2 receptor antagonists, such as cimetidine and ranitidine, will result in a more peaceful death, owing to formation of nitric oxide, a vasodilator, in acidic (Malko, Kucernak & Lopes, 2016) gastric environment—as shown in pathway A[1|2].

Required time[edit]

If the antiemetic is taken before ingestion of sodium azide, loss of consciousness occurs in several minutes, and death follows in less than 1 hour. Without the antiemetic, however, the required time to die will increase because of nausea and vomiting. There are many case reports of individuals who intentionally or accidentally ingested sodium azide without taking antiemetic. Based on the individual’s physiology, the sodium azide dose, time of admission, and the medical care, their time of death varies greatly. Death occured within 40 minutes with some grams (Klug & Schneider, 1987), 1.5 hours with 55 grams (Klein-Schwartz et al., 1989), 2 hours with an unknown amount, (Meatherall & Oleschuk, 2015), 4 hours with 9 grams (Marquet et al., 1996), 8 hours with an unknown amount, and 40 hours with 1.5 to 2 grams (Klein-Schwartz et al., 1989). (Klein-Schwartz et al., 1989) also published a more detailed table[1|2|3], summarizing the outcomes of sodium azide ingestion.

In 2018, the Cooperative Last Will claimed that, in more than 100 observed deaths with sodium azide, 2 g sodium azide put people unconscious in 20―30 minutes. Considering the small amount of 2 g, seizures are possible.

Accidental poisoning with sodium azide is rare but happens. (Howard, Skogerboe, Case, Raisys & Lacsina, 1990) reported death following accidental sodium azide ingestion. The ingested solution was identified as isotonic buffered saline containing sodium azide in a concentration of 1.0 g/L. One student drank three sips of the solution and survived. The other student drank 700 to 800 mL and over several days became progressively ill, suffering myocardial damage and cardiac dysrhythmias, and, finally, died.

Usually, mice die in convulsions within 10 min after IP (intraperitoneal injection) lethal doses of sodium azide, but occasionally a late death was observed in an apparent phase of collapse.

(Smith, 1991) reported the observed results after intracerebroventricular administration of sodium azide in rats. 0.1 or 0.2 mmol/kg dose of sodium azide produced agitation and tremors, including brief spurts of rapid but purposeful movement, but it did not produce convulsion. 6 mmol/kg (a much larger) dose produced major motor seizures consisting primarily of clonic convulsions in all animals tested which may have been somewhat longer lasting than 1 minute. Both azide and nitrite are vasodilators by virtue of their conversion to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo. This makes them a peaceful suicide method. When placed in the brain, azide produced seizures perhaps by virtue of its conversion to nitric oxide which produces seizures in lower doses.

In May 2019, Volkskrant published a news article about sodium azide suicide method with anecdotes rumored in the annual meeting that CLW held for its members. “We have heard two cases of people who went quickly and quietly,” a man said in the meeting. “But recently,” he continued, “we also heard about a death that was fierce and took a long time: 75 minutes.” He stated that the morphine was used. “We don’t know if there was any pain, but the person made many restless moves,” he added. He called on people to share their experiences.

Likewise what happened with Sodium Nitrite suicide method, since sodium azide suicide method became widespread, publications follow ethical anti-choicers’ agenda. Until mid-2020, the only research paper published regarding sodium azide suicide method was (Braam, 2019) that had the purpose of fearmongering. (See History of Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Azide Suicide Methods for more details).

Consequences of failure[edit]

There is no specific antidote for sodium azide intoxication. Because in some cases of sodium azide poisoning cyanide ions were detected, treatment with methaemoglobin-forming agents (sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, sodium thiosulfate) are suggested. (Bartecka-Mino et al., 2014) reported effectiveness of treating a 25-year-old female patient (46 kg) presented to the Emergency Department 90 minutes after ingesting one spoonful of sodium azide (without antiemetic) in a chemical laboratory suicidal attempt. She was treated with hydroxocobalamin and survived, compared to other cases of intoxication with sodium azide[1|2]. None of the three blood samples of the patient tested positive for cyanide, so the effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin is not based on the mechanism of scavenging cyanide ions. A possible explanation of the mechanism of action could be the ability of hydroxocobalamin to bind nitric oxide under formation of nitrocobalamin

Survivors of serious sodium azide poisoning may have heart and brain damage. NaN3 treatment of neuronal cultures closely reproduces the common initial step of many neurological dysfunctions, a non-apoptotic cell death (i.e., the mitochondrial failure) (Selvatici et al., 2008).

Success stories on the news[edit]

Before becoming widespread in 2018, using sodium azide in suicide had been mentioned in the news. Every media outlet that had spared more than a few sentences was obsessed with how others’ day had been ruined and how sodium azide could have endangered others—although none were harmed, especially with antiemetic and warning sign.

There are several reports of suicide. The first report is a first-year graduate student in the chemistry department, Lam, who used sodium azide to commit suicide, an ardent exaltation of freedom, in 1997 [1]. The second one is Sydney Kustu, a former professor, who killed herself in 2014 using sodium azide. She did so at Berkeley City Club, having left left warning notes taped to the entry area floor of her room. The windows of her room had been opened. There was no towel blocking the threshold gap, and there was no odor coming from the room. In the fall of 2009, she told Breakthrough magazine, a publication of the College of Natural Resources, “I do science because at one time it was forbidden fruit.” It’s just mind-boggling that azide is all nitrogen and nothing else—ironically, she had worked all her life on nitrogen metabolism and regulation [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. UC Berkeley Mourns the Loss of Sydney Kustu [10][11][12][13]. The third one is another chemical engineering student who killed himself in 2015 [14].

There are also several reports of homicide (attempts)—namely, a murder in 2000 [15], Harvard University Medical School poisoning in 2009 [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26], and sodium azide inside an envelope mailed to City Hall in 2019 [27][28].

This is a comprehensive collection of news reports, arrange in chronological order, of beautiful souls who left the vale of tears on their own terms, using sodium azide suicide method. In spite of strict censorship regarding reporting suicide methods, we’re fortunate to be inspired by their love. Please feel free to read about their journey.

Story #1 ― The first story belongs to the unsung hero of sodium azide suicide method. A man was discovered in his car in Annapolis, Maryland, on Thursday evening, 15 February 2018. He had mixed sodium azide with water and drank it, without taking antiemetic. In early days of sodium azide suicide method, CLW had not suggested taking antiemetic.

According to an Annapolis Fire Department release, rescue units were dispatched for an overdose call in the 900 block of Bay Ridge Road just before 5 p.m. Thursday. There, they found a man in his vehicle who had ingested a “white, powdery chemical substance,” Annapolis fire officials said. The Annapolis hazmat team identified the substance as sodium azide.

The man was in critical condition. He was transported to Anne Arundel Medical Center, where he relinquished joie de vivre and passed away, on Friday, according to fire officials. All fire personnel and hospital staff in direct contact with the patient were decontaminated, including the disposal and changing of their uniforms.

News articles: [29]

Story #2 ― A 24-year-old man calculated the amount of his purpose and his freedom. Each one was standardized in the context of the other. If he could increase his freedom with an unflinching purpose, he would live. Or, if he could lower his purpose with an unflinching freedom, he would live. He couldn’t lower his purpose, so he increase his freedom by suicide. He died Monday, 26 February 2018, after drinking a toxic cocktail made from mixing sodium azide with water. He was from Peach Hill in Ramsey, New Jersey.

It was unclear whether the Peach Hill condominium resident knew that he was drinking sodium azide, responders said, adding that family notifications were made. Ramsey Rescue and police responded, then requested hazardous materials units from Mahwah and Bergen County. Responders had to be decontaminated.

News articles: [30]

Story #3 ― The third story has a lesson for everybody: don’t judge others based on their failed attempts.

Magnus was a member of Sanctioned Suicide forum. The man had a family member living in Manistee, Michigan; he had local ties. Magnus had many poor-researched[Archive] attempts that had eluded him of a successful suicide. But, at the end, he killed himself using sodium azide, in an idyllic place where no one could impede him, in a felicitous time when no one could find him. In one of his last[Archive] posts, he described his prudent suicide plan:

Thursday 10/25
5 pm, begin taking Primperan/Metoclopramide every 8 hours, at 1 am, 9 am, and again at 5 pm on Friday and Saturday.
Saturday 10/27
around 2 pm, I’ll arrive in my hometown for the annual Halloween party
5 pm- I’ll eat dinner, and begin fasting for the azide
8 pm-11 pm I’ll attend the Halloween party
Sunday 10/28
12:45 am- head down to the beach on lake Michigan. Upon arriving I’ll take 800mg of tagamet
1 am- I’ll take the last Primperan, along with one of my muscle relaxers and an ibuprofen 600mg
1:30 am-Mix 20g of Azide with 70 ml of water and down it. Immediately after, lay down on the beach under the stars, listening to the waves
After that, ctb. I don’t know how long it’ll take but hopefully with the larger dose it won’t be too long. Plus, the Azide I’m getting is coming from Amazon [Himedia] so it many not be the ideal purity and may take longer. All kinds of factors may change the time but this is the essence of what I plan to do. What do you guys think? Anything I should change? Cut out? Add? 
It'll be close to 2 am at the time I do this, and not very warm. It's highly unlikely anyone but me would be out on the beach at that time. But leaving a note is a good idea 
After rereading the section in the ppeh on azide, I decided that 20g may still be too much, and have decided to bring the amount down to 10g of azide in 70ml of water 

Around 9 a.m. on Sunday, 28 October 2018, a couple found the man lying unresponsive on a cot, near the water’s edge; they called authorities to First Street Beach.

When police and fire department personnel arrived, officers found the man’s body on the beach. During the investigation, they found sodim azide on the scene. Manistee director of public safety, Tim Kozal said sodium azide was contained in a white bottle inside of the 27-year-old Mancelona man’s vehicle. His vehicle was impounded, and a search led to the discovery of the toxic chemical. Emergency responders were decontaminated and evaluated at Munson Healthcare Manistee Hospital afterward. All other individuals were released Sunday evening, except one officer who was admitted overnight as a precautionary measure. No exposure was reported.

Finding sodium azide prompted an investigation and evacuation near the man’s Antrim County home, nearly 100 miles away. The Mancelona Township Fire Department, Star Township Fire Department, and Mancelona Township Ambulance were dispatched to the Lakes of the North area for briefing on the situation. Crews with the Antrim County Emergency Operation Management, A-1 Hazmat Team, and Hazmat from Otsego County were also on the scene to assist.

Including the man’s home which was under investigation, three residences in a cul-de-sac were asked to evacuate. All three families were sent to the Mancelona Fire Department’s station in Lakes of the North to be monitored for potential exposure. “The three families from the residences were monitored for approximately two hours,” stated Antrim County sheriff Daniel Bean in a press release. After the monitoring was completed, families were sent home. The hazmat teams found no signs of danger or exposure within the residences. Investigators believe the man had no intent to harm others.

On Sunday, there was no threat of harm to the public. However, hazmat crews from the Grand Traverse Metro Fire Department were called in. Members of the Grand Traverse County hazardous materials team and industrial environmental services experts assessed the area in Manistee and belongings that may have been exposed as well as performed any necessary cleaning or disposal. The sodium azide found in the man’s vehicle at First Street Beach was secured by an industrial disposal company.

“In it’s solid form it’s pretty much odorless and not dangerous, but if it’s mixed with water it becomes a deadly lethal gas and so what that gas does is it gives off cyanideen,” Chief Pat Parker of the Grand Traverse Metro Fire Deptartment. “It also attacks the cells in your body If you ingest it, if you breathe it in or you get it on your skin.”

On Monday, Manistee City Police contacted the Antrim County Sheriff’s Office in regards to the investigation. According to a sheriff’s department press release, Manistee police officers told Antrim County sheriff’s deputies the man died from a lethal dose of a chemical mixture known as “sodium azide.” Antrim County sheriff Daniel Bean said the man left a suicide note, indicating he placed a lock box at the end of his bed. When the man’s parents opened the box, they located a vial sealed with a cork. Sheriff Dan Bean said personnel never found the vial. “We didn’t find anything, but we did [the evacuation] as being proactive and precautionary with this substance,” he said. It might be that he had purchased a pack of vials from the Internet. One for his suicide note and the other for his suicide method.

On Tuesday, 1 November 2018, Kozal said, “Sodium azide when mixed with water releases a toxic gas that can be lethal. Consuming the mixture can also be toxic and lethal, as well. Who knows the level of exposure to the level of harm it would’ve had on them. If they had it on their skin they could’ve been burned, if they inhaled it could have been lethal. It also can be explosive when mixed with metal. You can buy it on Ebay; you can buy it on Amazon. Anybody can buy it.”

“While we were talking to the [family] they were describing something they had found with powder in it,” Kozal said. “We had some conversations with [the parents] yesterday [Monday] and there were instructions from the decedent to the family.”

The Manistee police chief says all uniforms of the first responders in Manistee will be destroyed for safety reasons. “There is going to be costs to replace all the uniforms for our officers and fire fighters that can range anywhere from $2,000 or more,” Chief Kozal said. “And then you have the cost of the decontamination, I’m not certain on that but it could be $20,000 or more.” “At this time, there is no threat to the public,” Kozal said on Tuesday. “I guess financially, all in all it does not matter, for the safety of everybody in our departments throughout the county — we are going to spend what we have to.”

An autopsy had been completed by Tuesday, but Kozal said the cause of death yet cannot be confirmed.

Kozal said he is confident man did not have any ill intent to harm anyone else. Police send their condolences to his family and friends.

Crews that assisted were from the Manistee Department of Public Safety, Manistee Police Department, Michigan State Police, Little River Band of Ottawa Indians Police Department, Manistee County Sheriff’s Office, Antrim County Sheriff’s Office, Mancelona Township Fire Department, Star Township Fire Department, Township Ambulance Authority, Antrim County Emergency Operation Management, A-1 Hazmat Team, and Otsego County Hazmat.

Goodbye thread: [31][Archive] News articles: [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40][Archive] [41][Archive]

Story #4 ― The first person who committed suicide using sodium azide in Sweden was from neither Sweden nor Norway but Turkey. A Turkish, acumen woman (30) lived and worked in Sweden. For a couple of days, she was staying in a room at Slottsskogen’s hostel, a centrally located hostel in Linnéstaden, Gothenburg—until she dressed for her last sweet bed, took antiemetic, and drank sodium azide solution. She died.

On Thursday morning at 11:45, 1 November 2018, staff accommodation at Slottsskogen’s hostel went to check on the woman, who had not checked out. They raised an alarm that the woman had suffered a cardiac arrest; emergency services were called. “We were there already at 11:45. It was alarmed as a cardiac arrest. We went there by ambulance. Staff accommodation had tried to help, but the woman died,” said Hans Lippens, spokesperson for the Police Region West.

What had begun as a medical case soon became a police case. Near the dead woman, inside the room, a suspected substance was found. Hans Lippens added, “We got a report of a cardiac arrest at lunchtime today [Thursday]. While a patrol searched the room, this substance was found. The word ‘natriumazid’ (sodium azide) was written on the bag containing the white powder. At first, we thought it was narcotics, but the assessment changed.”

At 17:14, police were alerted to a suspected dangerous substance at Slottsskogen’s hostel. Police equipped with masks were on site, along with the national bomb force, to investigate the scene. They later announced that the deceased woman should have been found at the hostel earlier on Thursday. After a number of hours, the national bomb shelter collected the sodium azide. By 20:20 on Thursday, the national bombing force had disposed of the white powder. “We have handled it as sodium azide, but we are not one hundred that it is,” said Hans Lippens. “It is used, among other things, in airbags and in healthcare, but to a limited extent. But where to get it I have no idea.”

Everyone who had come into contact with the subject—including employees at the hostel, firefighters, ambulance staff, and police—was offered to go to hospital for checkup. A total of 19 people went to hospital, but they did not show any symptoms. “There are 19 people who have been to hospitals who have in some way been to this space where this substance has been. None of them have shown any contamination or impact in any way,” said Hans Lippens. During the operation, there was no danger to the public in the area. At that time, about 50 guests lived at the hostel. “Of course,” said the owner of the hostel on site, “the guests are startled by the effort here.” Two of the guests, Ing-Marie Eriksson and granddaughter Casper Bergstedt (12) lived at the hostel overnight. They had come from Filipstad and, by 19:00, had not received any information about what was happening. Ing-Marie Eriksson remarked, “It’s an uneasy feeling in the stomach. You do not know what is going on. We just come from the Natural History Museum and will be staying here for two nights, but we’ll see if we have to stay elsewhere.” There was an unruly feeling in the neighborhood. People in the neighborhood around the hostel could not avoid the police activity.

Just before 21:00, police announced that the operation at the scene had ended. No person was arrested in connection with the incident. The police launched a preliminary investigation into manslaughter, but, according to Hans Lippens, the criminalization of crime should initially be regarded as a technicality. He said, “Initially, this is so, because we do not know how the woman died. Then the analysis of the powder continues.” Relatives of the woman had not yet been informed, so police were upset with the details of the woman, who had a Turkish passport. “We have an idea of ​​who the woman is. She is not Norwegian,” said Peter Adlersson, spokesperson for Police West.

Police, on Friday morning, identified the woman. They declared on their website that she must have presented an ID document from a European country, but she is a resident of Gothenburg. The cause of her death had not been determined yet. “To find out the cause of death, the body will undergo a forensic examination. The results of the survey will probably not come until next week. The title of the case is still negligent manslaughter,” declared the police. Since relatives have not yet been notified, the police did not provide any more information about the woman.

Morten Gunneng, the commanding officer of the Gothenburg Police, stated that, because there was a chemical designation on the bag in which the substance was found, the police now suspect sodium azide. “I’ve never heard of this topic before. It is not a lie to say that it is unusual,” said Morten Gunneng. When he was asked, “Is anyone suspicious?,” he answered, “No, we have no suspect at this time, and the woman was alone in the room when she was found. What we will look into now is if she had had company before. We have treated it as a toxic substance.” And to “How long will it take for the police to clarify this particular finding?” he answered, “Yes, it has been sent to the NFC (National Forensic Center) for analysis, and it is certainly a priority. But we still talk about days before you can say anything for sure.”

On 8 November 2018, the police confirmed that the substance was sodium azide, though it was still unclear if the powder itself caused the woman’s death. “It’s an odd, unusual chemical,” Mark Personne, chief medical officer at the Poison Information Center, told in connection with the incident. “It is a powerful poison, a single gram can be fatal and seriously affect the body. It leads to severe drop in blood pressure, unconsciousness, and cramps. The heart will have difficulty pumping. The substance becomes explosive when mixed with certain metals. My guess is that it is possible to access it on the Internet where you can access almost anything today. The worst thing that can happen is that you die from the effects. We do not have any deaths reported from Sweden, but internationally there is. We have few incidents in Sweden.”

On 20 December 2018, the cause of death of the woman was still undetermined. The reason was that the forensic chemistry department at the Swedish Forensic Medicines Agency had to developed special methods for investigating such an unusual substance as sodium azide. The new methods had to prove if the substance was what caused the woman’s death. Communicator at the Swedish Forensic Medicines Agency, Johan Göransson said, “Analyzes are still ongoing and will not be ready before Christmas. It is an odd substance. And when there are such unusual substances, you have to find a new method to be able to prove whether the substance is in the body or not.”

The police were waiting for the autopsy to find out whether the woman died because of the toxic substance or for some other reason. “It will probably happen next week. In the meantime, we compile interviews that we have held with everyone who may have had some contact with the woman at the hostel,” said Tommy Nyman.

Peter Kron is the head of Group for Major Crimes within the Police in Greater Gothenburg and is the leader of the police investigation, which is formally classified as negligent manslaughter. “We put that criminal classification in order to be able to continue working, but we still have no idea whether it is a crime or not,” he said. Peter Kron said that many people had heard from him about the cause of death, partly relatives but also the Turkish embassy wondered why the message was delayed. The woman lived and worked in Sweden but was a Turkish citizen. “It’s a little frustrating when you can’t give relatives answers. They suffer from nothing happening, but when I explained what it was, it was just like the situation.” Deaths caused by the substance had been previously reported abroad but never in Sweden.

On 3 February 2019, the forensic examination was complete; it was confirmed that the woman died of the substance sodium azide. The investigation showed that it was the substance itself that caused her death.

In order to be able to determine the cause of death, the Swedish Forensic Medicines Agency had to devise new methods, which has made it drag on over time. “It was no problem to state that it was sodium azide. But the fact that the time has elapsed is about determining the cause of death. The cause of death was sodium azide. It must be legal certainty and established beyond any reasonable doubt,” said Peter Kron. “The police investigation that started with regard to the wrongdoing to another person’s death after the incident will now be closed down. We no longer suspect any crime.” The verdict was that the woman had committed suicide—a victimless crime that is decriminalized.

Story #5 ― Morgan Diehl, 32, was a member of Sanctioned Suicide forum (username: SiArc). Morgan had well researched her suicide method, sodium azide. In her last weeks, she fought against fearmongers on the forum and encouraged everyone to do their own research.

Morgan had a German Shepherd dog named Magnus—the only thing holding her, her soulmate for nearly 7 years. Being particular with who takes care of Magnus, she had recently tried to give him to very good families 4 times, yet, each time, he had gotten loose and had come back to her. He didn’t want to be rehomed. In her last suicide attempt in November 2018, Magnus tried to follow the ambulance. She did her last suicide attempt, because she had a person she knew will take care of him like a pup son. Morgan’s best friend took him, but he would not stay still for the three days she was in the hospital. Magnus was always her first thought and the decider in what she does, where she goes, what things she dose or doesn’t take on. He never wanted to be where she was not—the greatest companion one could ever ask for. She didn’t want to make him devastated or hurt him. So she took him with herself.

She had recalcitrated against every proposal from life and had a plan to depart this realm on early Monday, 21 January 2019, during eclipse. Her plan was caring for her beloved dog, Magnus, with sodium azide and commiting suicide, unencumbered, with the same substance in her home. She could not go to a lush forest, so she brought it to herself, using high quality tapestries, florwers, salts, and candles—that created a calming, comfortable, and light ambient, instead of a blank, dank, and dark spot. She left no suicide notes, because she thought others cannot encompass enough of what she wish to say to the very few people she cared for.

In 19 January 2019 she posted, “No one will check on me for days and my failsafes will do me in if my main plan does not. I do not have family who can post my obituary so maybe the city will or something or my bestie. If my plan works there might even be a news story or something. ha, deadly famous.” Perhaps her failsafe was setting her home on fire, because she believed it was her home and she didn’t want to worry about haunting the new residence of it after her death. She had calculated the response time of police, based on her working experience in the field.

Things, though, didn’t go as she had planned.

Caleb O’Pry is a security officer for the Southern Missouri office of Judicial Services. He was out on his regular patrol Sunday night, when he decided to take a different route. “This particular night he said I am going to take this route because it might be a little closer to get to the next place that he was going. So it was just by chance that he was in that area.” said Natalie McGuire, public information officer for SMOJS.

That is when O’Pry saw a house on fire and stopped to check it out. “He noticed the door was hot, he seen flames coming out of the windows and the front door. So he went around to the side of the house.” said Tim Brenner, owner of SMOJS. “He saw the woman inside trying to get out of the window. He took his baton, knocked the glass out, took his coat off, covered his coat in the window, covered her, and pulled her out of the window and carried her to safety.” explained McGuire. The security officer helped the woman until first responders arrived.

“We train them in first aid, CPR.” said Brenner. “We carry medical kits in the car for that reason. If they see someone in public that needs help, I encourage them even though that person is not a client, to give help to that person.” Brenner says fire evacuation is part of their training too. “A lot of our clients are apartment buildings. So we teach them how to get people out of house and stuff for that type of reason.”

Firefighters responded just after midnight to 3067 W. Division following reports of a house fire. Firefighters arrived to find smoke visible from the residence and found Morgan Diehl, 32, unresponsive in the yard of the home. Firefighters immediately began resuscitation efforts, and Ms. Diehl was transported to Cox South Hospital, where her death was pronounced. Next of kin has been notified, the cause of death remains undetermined, and the cause of the fire remains under investigation.

She was rushed to the hospital where she died from her injuries. “He is a good person, you want to do good, that is what we are trained to do, and he just wanted to save her.” McGuire said about O’Pry.

Morgan Diehl died after a house fire on the 3000 block of West Division Street (just east of West Bypass near Faith Assembly Church) in Springfield, despite heroic actions by a security officer who tried to save her. Her cause of death nor the cause of the fire wasn’t released. The reports implied that Morgan died due to the fire. In fact, she had intentionally set her home on fire, and her cause of death was due to intentional ingestion of sodium azide in a suicide attempt, not the fire.

Morgan never discussed the details of her suicide method, such as the amount of sodium azide that she was going to take. However, it might be that she first gave sodium azide to her dog and observed his death. Then, drank sodium azide herself and set her house on fire. Since she had miscalculated the time of consciousness (possibly compared to her dog), she was caught conscious among the flames and the smokes. Or she could have been waving him back and telling him to leave her alone.

At the end, despite what the media had suggested, Morgan was rescued from the flames. Caleb couldn’t reverse the effect of sodium azide, nor Morgan wanted him to do so. Her body didn’t burn among the flames of her home, the way she had planned, but she did die, perchance, in the hands of a hero.

Goodbye thread: [67][Archives: P1|P2|P3|P4] News articles: [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] Obituaries: [79] [80]

Story #6 ― Michael Semenovski, 20, of Brooklyn, suffered from health issues. He decided to use sodium azide to permanently sedate himself, a conscious and continuous effort to perish. He decided to surreptitiously sneak out into a wooden area and kill himself in its equanimity. It is not clear when he decided to act on his cogitated decision—but, being a thoughtful man, he scheduled an email notification letting family know where his body could be found.

One night, he lined up with her unmet dreams and set herself free. His commitment to suicide brought peace to fruition.

On 29 January 2019, around 11 a.m., his lifeless body was found in a wooded area of New Springville—at Ashworth Avenue, between Grissom Avenue and Cooper Terrace. Because of sodium azide that was found near his body and was used in his suicide, a large Haz-Mat emergency responded the scene near Willowbrook Park. The NYPD, the FDNY and the city Department of Environmental Protection were among the agencies called to the scene. Sodium azide did not cause a threat to any residents in the area, authorities told the local media.

News articles: [81] [82]


  • Health status: Sodium azide suicide method, as is, effectively kills whether old people or healthy Olympic champions. Even if you do have chronic gastritis, that’s not going to slow your ability to digest and absorb a simple liquid like an SA/H2O solution.
  • Testing the drugs: If you have decided to use a particular antiemetic, it is strongly advised to take a test dose before your attempt to see if it has a negative reaction with you. This testing is to avoid any unwanted surprises on your final day. Test it a week or so beforehand at a half or so of your intended dose, then cease use.
  • Fasting: Fasting for 4–8 hours is strongly recommended so that your stomach feels empty. 4 hours, depending on your metabolism, might be enough. Some people have medical conditions that mean fasting has a negative effect on them. Try to avoid eating anything large and heavy. Avoid drinking anything two hours prior to drinking the solution―except plain water, if you need to.
  • Pain killers: When sodium azide starts to work, your blood pressure will drop; so you may get a mild headache. To counteract this headache, any regular pain killer will stop or reduce the pain before it starts. Paracetamol or ibuprofen will work. 2 or 3 times of the therapeutic dose.
  • Sedatives, hypnotics, and opioids: It is only natural to feel extremely anxious during this event. Pharmaceutical sedatives are the recommended way to reduce anxiety and induce sleep. Or perhaps something that you personally know would work, too. If using sedatives, it’s suggested to take the prescribed dose 1 hour before drinking the solution. Antidepressants are good; benzodiazepines or z-drugs are the recommended choice. You can first test small dosage beforehand to know when to take the medicine, because if you take them too soon, you may fall asleep before drinking the solution. Benzodiazepines potency, tolerance, onset (i.e., how quick), duration (i.e., how long) vary greatly. Some benzodiazepines affects within 10 minutes, while others take 1 hour, and this changes individually. Moreover, z-drugs cause more drowsiness and reduce physical sensations, but they’re mild to moderate in anxiety reduction. (Benzodiazepines are more powerful in this regard.) Most opiates, such as heroin, that have a selective or predominant mu agonist activity inhibit gastric motility and delay gastric emptying. So opiates are highly recommended.
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): If you are taking PPIs (e.g., esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) for gastric ulcers, you should stop taking them 2 weeks prior your attempt. See the Antacid section for more information.
  • Alcohol: Taking a large amount of alcohol prior is not recommended, because it may increase the chance of vomiting.
  • Water: It is important that you only use plain water to mix the sodium azide drink. Do not consider using fruit juice, carbonated drinks, or water with added electrolytes to make the taste better.
  • Storing: Store synthesized azides below room temperature and away from sources of heat, light, pressure, and shock. Store sodium azide (solid as well as solutions) away from bromine, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfate, nitric acid, heavy metals and their salts. Avoid water and strong acids which can lead to the formation of potentially explosive hydrazoic acid and its toxic vapors. Avoid contact with metal shelves or containers. Use secondary containment if necessary. Avoid grinding, scratching, strong agitation, or causing friction with azides, particularly with pure materials.
  • Preparing the sodium azide solution: Sodium azide is simply not reactive—except to heavy metal, acid, or extreme heat. Normal temperatures are fine. It is important that all of the sodium azide is dissolved. If there are crystals still at the bottom of the glass, add small bits of water and keep stirring. The aim is to use as little water as possible. The water solution can be prepared beforehand, at any time. It is potent forever, as long as kept in a sealed plastic or glass container. Such solutions contain minute amounts of hydrogen azide, described by the following equilibrium: N3- + H2O ↔ HN3 + OH- (K=10-4.6)
  • Safety measures: Laboratory personnel wear gloves (exam grade nitrile), lab coat, and safety glasses or chemical splash goggles while handling sodium azide or solutions that contain it. Given that carrying the powder is easier than the solution, here is an easy way to prepare the method. First, measure the amount of water you want to add to the container (e.g., 50 ml) and mark the level of water on the container with a marker or a tape. Let the container completely dry. When the vial had become dry, add the amount of sodium azide you’d measured (e.g., 10 g) to the container and sealed it. Whenever you are ready, add water up to the marked level and stir the solution.
  • Putting sodium azide into capsule: The aim is to flood your bloodstream with the right amount of sodium azide, as quickly as possible, so you do not feel any symptoms for any longer than you need to. This is why using the sodium azide in water is recommended above any other method. Putting sodium azide into capsule only removes the point of the taste in your mouth. People have still been sick after taking capsules, owing to the fact that the human body will still react to sodium azide regardless of being in water or capsules. The sodium azide in capsule will be slowly released into your system, extending the time to death significantly.
  • Taste: The solution is a weak acid (pH value = 2). With the intention of removing the afterwards taste, some people use a strong mouthwash to numb their tongue, taste buds before or after drinking the solution, or a small piece of confectionery after drinking the solution.
  • IV (intravenous injection): You need hospital equipment to inject sodium azide. You may fail, if you miscalculate your plan.
  • Seizure: It is possible but not guaranteed. The process of the body shutting down could produce a seizure. They are normally limited events and last between a few seconds or up to 2 minutes. There are a few types of seizures with different symptoms. The one you may have in mind (often seen in Hollywood films for the dramatic effect) is called a Grand Mal Seizure which normally only happens with epilepsy. If concerned, make sure the place where you will be resting is cleared of all objects so you don’t knock them over.

Where to find[edit]

Sodium azide is best known for its use in automobile airbags and is a chemical preservative in hospitals and laboratories. Sodium azide is very common. All the research labs have it. And it doesn’t look like a joke, obviously. You can buy it on Ebay; you can buy it on Amazon. Anybody can buy it. The sodium azide powder was easily accessible and could be purchased through many retailers, till mid-2019. Ever since then, it’s almost unavailable for sale to the general public in the E.U. Still, you can purchase sodium azide aqueous solution.

Getting rid of the packages, containers, receipts, labels, and Internet history protects the supplier, source, and this website from being revealed or scrutinized by authorities or anit-choicers. In order to keep resources legal and accessible for others, please remove all the labeling from your sodium azide container. Just flush the labels down the toilet or burn it into ashes using a lighter. That being said, please ensure that your container is at least very clearly marked as “POISON.” The warning sign minimizes the risk of injury or death for others who may find or have access to the substances.

Because anti-choicers deterred retailers, you’re presented with the spells to legally acquire the medicine. Metoclopramide is super easy to get in the U.S. Just shoot an email or call your doctor. No office or ER visit is required. Nor are lab tests required.

What you need How to get it
Doctor Shopping Tips
Metoclopramide say you have a cold, suffer from indigestion, food stays in your stomach, and your coughing bouts make you want to vomit. A forum member used the magical words[1|2|3] to deliver[1|2|3] their metoclopramide to the pharmacy. (Neither the husband nor the patient had taken metoclopramide before; it was a lie.)
Benzodiazepines (optional) say you have severe insomnia, panic attacks, and anxiety.
Ondansetron (does not help with sodium azide method) say you suffer from food poisoning, can’t keep food down, feel nauseated, and vomit; but alert, no fever, not vomiting blood or bile. Ondansetron (Zofran) is definitely the first line of treatment for food poisoning without serious alarming symptoms.

Further reading[edit]


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  • Ciesla, M., Calello, D., & Nelson, L. (2018). When the poisoned risk poisoning others: fatal sodium azide overdose. Emergency Medicine, 50(6), 132-134. doi: 10.12788/emed.2018.0093 [Full Text: 1|2|3|4]
  • Schwarz, E., Wax, P., Kleinschmidt, K., Sharma, K., Chung, W., & Cantu, G. et al. (2014). Multiple poisonings with sodium azide at a local restaurant. The Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 46(4), 491-494. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.08.082 [PubMed: 24262061][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Rojek, S., Hydzik, P., Gomółka, E., Kula, K., & Kłys, M. (2015). Clinical and analytical problems of sodium azide poisonings as exemplified by a case of fatal suicidal poisoning. Archives Of Forensic Medicine And Criminology, 3, 145-157. doi: 10.5114/amsik.2015.58160 [PubMed: 27003865][Full Text]
  • Sodium azide [MAK Value Documentation, 2003]. (2012). The MAK-Collection For Occupational Health And Safety, 276-284. doi: 10.1002/3527600418.mb2662822e0020 [Full Text: 1]
  • Wiergowski, M., Galer-Tatarowicz, K., Krzyzanowski, M., Jankowski, Z., & Sein Anand, J. (2012). [Suicidal intoxication with sodium azide--a case report]. Przegl Lek, 69(8), 568-71. [PubMed: 23243931][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Chang, S., & Lamm, S. (2003). Human health effects of sodium azide exposure: a literature review and analysis. International Journal Of Toxicology, 22(3), 175-186. doi: 10.1080/10915810305109 [PubMed: 12851150][Full Text: 1]
  • Liu, C., Liang, M., & Soong, T. (2019). Nitric oxide, iron and neurodegeneration. Frontiers In Neuroscience, 13. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00114 [PMC: 6388708]
  • Klug, E., & Schneider, V. (1987). Suizid mit natriumazid. Zeitschrift Für Rechtsmedizin, 98(2). doi: 10.1007/bf00200470 [Abstract][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Łopaciński, B., Kołacinski, Z,. & Winnicka, R. (2007). [Sodium azide--clinical course of the poisoning and treatment]. Przegl Lek, 64(4-5), 326-30. [PubMed: 17724902]
  • Tonini, M., Cipollina, L., Poluzzi, E., Crema, F., Corazza, G., & De Ponti, F. (2004). Clinical implications of enteric and central D2 receptor blockade by antidopaminergic gastrointestinal prokinetics. Alimentary Pharmacology And Therapeutics, 19(4), 379-390. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.01867.x [PubMed: 14871277][Full Text]
  • Heykants, J., Hendriks, R., Meuldermans, W., Michiels, M., Scheygrond, H., & Reyntjens, H. (1981). On the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in animals and man IV. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous domperidone and its bioavailability in man following intramuscular, oral and rectal administration. European Journal Of Drug Metabolism And Pharmacokinetics, 6(1), 61-70. doi: 10.1007/bf03189516 [PubMed: 7250152][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Kusumi, I., Boku, S. and Takahashi, Y. (2014). Psychopharmacology of atypical antipsychotic drugs: from the receptor binding profile to neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 69(5), pp.243-258. [Full Text]
  • Li, P., L. Snyder, G. and E. Vanover, K. (2016). Dopamine targeting drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia: past, present and future. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 16(29), pp.3385-3403. [PMC: 5112764]
  • Ogino, K., Kodama, N., Nakajima, M., Yamada, A., Nakamura, H., Nagase, H., Sadamitsu, D., & Maekawa, T. (2001). Catalase catalyzes nitrotyrosine formation from sodium azide and hydrogen peroxide. Free Radical Research, 35(6), 735-747. [PubMed: 11811525][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Klein-Schwartz, W., Gorman, R., Oderda, G., Massaro, B., Kurt, T., & Garriott, J. (1989). Three fatal sodium azide poisonings. Medical Toxicology And Adverse Drug Experience, 4(3), 219-227. doi: 10.1007/bf03259998 [PubMed: 2818717]
  • Meatherall, R., & Oleschuk, C. (2015). Suicidal Fatality from Azide Ingestion. Journal Of Forensic Sciences, 60(6), 1666-1667. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.12857 [PubMed: 26212682][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Marquet, P., Clément, S., Lotfi, H., Dreyfuss, M., Debord, J., Dumont, D., & Lachâtre, G. (1996). Analytical Findings in a Suicide Involving Sodium Azide. Journal Of Analytical Toxicology, 20(2), 134-138. doi: 10.1093/jat/20.2.134 [PubMed: 8868407][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Howard, J., Skogerboe, K., Case, G., Raisys, V., & Lacsina, E. (1990). Death Following Accidental Sodium Azide Ingestion. Journal Of Forensic Sciences, 35(1), 12818J. doi: 10.1520/jfs12818j [PubMed: 2313259]
  • Smith, R. (1991). Acute neurotoxicity of sodium azide and nitric oxide*1. Fundamental And Applied Toxicology, 17(1), 120-127. doi: 10.1016/0272-0590(91)90244-x [PubMed: 1916070][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]
  • Bartecka-Mino, K., Schiel, H., Holzer, A., Arif, T., Raab, G., & Mascher, H. (2014). Successful use of hydroxocobalamin in suicidal poisoning with sodium azide. [Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8]
  • Braam, S. (2019). De opkomst en ondergang van ‘middel X’. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 163 pii: D3923 [Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5]
  • Selvatici, R., Previati, M., Marino, S., Marani, L., Falzarano, S., Lanzoni, I., & Siniscalchi, A. (2008). Sodium Azide Induced Neuronal Damage In Vitro: Evidence for Non-Apoptotic Cell Death. Neurochemical Research, 34(5), 909-916. doi: 10.1007/s11064-008-9852-0 [PubMed: 18841470][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]