“All-meat regimen cured my depression.” ― Jordan Bernt Peterson, Canadian psychologist and professor of psychology
Sodium nitrite (SN), mainly used in preserving processed meats and fish, has been mentioned in murder cases, suicide cases, and accidental poisoning cases. A list of such incidents have been documented in Sodium Nitrite Poisoning Cases, as well as users’ experiences[Archive] on the forum that are almost entirely anecdotal.
Simple step-by-step instructions
There are many ways to commit suicide by sodium nitrite. The following is an easy, quick, and pain-free recipe.
1. Take 30 mg metoclopramide (another editor suggested 800 mg of Tagamet, as well).
2. Wait 1 hour.
3. Dissolve 15 – 25 g sodium nitrite in 50 – 100 ml water.
4. Drink the solution and relax on a bed, a couch, or a reclining chair.
How it works
Sodium nitrite, NaNO2, is a catalyst that converts the hemoglobin in blood into methemoglobin (MetHB), a molecule with a much higher affinity with oxygen. This conversion occurs when the ferrous ions in the regular hemoglobin are converted into ferric ones. Since its affinity is so high, methemoglobin does not let the oxygen flow into other tissues that need it thus depriving them of oxygen—even while you’re breathing. Death, then, occurs due to hemolytic anemia or anemic hypoxia, not hypoxic hypoxia. The main reason for peacefulness of sodium nitrite method is that nitrate and nitrite reduce to nitric oxide, a vasodilator. Vasodilators relax hence dilate the smooth muscle in veins. Dilating veins will cause fall in blood pressure and loss of consciousness. (Bailey, Feelisch, Horowitz, Frenneaux & Madhani, 2014) illustrated the nitrite-derived NO signalling[1|2|3].
Alkyl nitrite functions as a source of nitric oxide, which signals for relaxation of the involuntary muscles. Alkyl nitrites (also referred to as poppers) have been used for recreational drug purposes, typically for the “high”, “rush”, or light headed feeling that the drug can create. Two examples of such drugs are amyl nitrite and isobutyl nitrite. Rarely are there cases with fatal outcome of those who accidentally ingested it, used it with Viagra or other erectile dysfunction medications, applied it on the skin, or inhaled too much of it too quickly after each hit (, , and , to name but a few). Still, there is a huge stigma attached to someone who accidentally dies from a drug overdose.
The PPH has designated sodium nitrite ingestion as a peaceful way to end your life. It has made that statement through observing the death of 6 people who ingested a sodium nitrite drink. Peaceful means that there was minimal distress with no suffering to those who drank it. There are symptoms, however, that can be gained by drinking sodium nitrite.
Sodium nitrite poisoning symptoms include nausea, vomiting, vertigo, headaches, and tachycardia. All of these symptoms will not emerge in everyone. These symptoms will provide low level discomfort, and you will suffer no discomfort through the process. As for the physical symptoms, the color of blood, skin, fingertips, nail beds, and lips will change. The blood will take a bluish chocolate brown color, and the tips of fingers, toes, and nose will turn slightly blue from cyanosis (PubChem). In April 2019, a kindergarten teacher in China poisoned 23 children by lacing their breakfast with sodium nitrite. The only noticeable change in appearance of kindergarten students were their lips that had turned blue[1|2|3|4]. Additionally, in September 2019, four members of an Indian family committed suicide using sodium nitrite; similarly, little change to bluish[1|2|3|4|5|6] was visible in the color of their skin, their fingertips, and blood[1|2|3|4]. Also, (Warren and Blackwood, 2019) published a case report of a 25-year-old woman who had used benzocaine. The percentage of methemoglobin in her blood was 44%. The patient appeared cyanotic and had dark arterial and venous blood[1|2|3]. She was treated with intravenous methylene blue and had considerable improvement in her breathing and reduction in skin discoloration. Putting on a proper makeup[1|2|3|4] to go out in style can conceal any changes in your appearance.
Podcast No5 – 24 May 2020 The Lethal Salts – Part II described 5 accounts of ending one’s own life by sodium nitrite.
1) George witnessed his 89-year-old wife, Susan, drinking sodium nitrite to take her life. Soon after waking up in the morning, Susan took 30 mg of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor—instead of antiemetic. 40 minutes later, she drank the sodium nitrite solution. She was surprised by the saltiness of the taste. About half a minute later, she vomited very slightly. She sat in bet to reduce the possibility of any more vomiting. She felt some dizziness. It took her 5 minuets to lose consciousness. She showed no signs of distress during unconsciousness. Susan died 30 minutes later, and her body was examined by a doctor 2 hours later. George, who had a witnessed the experience with sodium nitrite method, said he is confident to have sodium nitrite on the shelf so he can use it to obtain a peaceful death at the time of his choosing.
2) An 81-year-old woman took sodium nitrite to end her life alone. Her death was taken to be of natural causes. This suggests her body did not display obvious cyanosis, considering that cyanosis is a very common effect on the body as death takes place.
3) According to the sister of the deceased, Mrs. W took her life alone using sodium nitrite. Her body looked lovely and peaceful, and not brown. There have been no questions from the police or the coroner.
4) A friend of the deceased wrote, “I was not too surprised that her death was taken to be from natural causes, because I know of another Exit member, a 92-year-old man, who used sodium nitrite. He also was not glaringly showing cyanosis. Could the relatively short time to death, 22 minutes, played a role in this?”
5) A couple chose recently to go together. Their daughter wrote, “I want to let you know that my parents died together of nitrite recently. My mother was terminally ill, and dad chose not to go on without her. While I was not with them, it looked as it has been a very peaceful death.”
The main compound for this method, sodium nitrite is legal-to-own and easy-to-find, because it’s widely used during curation of meats to preserve their color. Cured meats form about 5% of our nitrite intake. Currently, sodium nitrite is sold without regulation and can be bought from Amazon, eBay, or any local lab supplier. Some generous members shared[1|2|3|4] their success in doing so. And the color of solution 25 grams sodium nitrite in 50 ml water can bee seen in here[1|2|3] plus the screenshot[1|2|3] of 25 grams in 100 ml water, from 6 July 2019 livestream. Please make sure that its purity is >95% and you’re purchasing sodium nitrite (NaNO2)—not sodium nitrate (NaNO3). Should you not find it by looking up sodium nitrite, search for “NaNO2”, “NNaO2”, or “Filmerine.” Either food grade or lab grade is fine. 100 grams cost €8 – 10. Sodium nitrite is described as white to yellowish powder/crystals and very soluble in water, with an unremarkable and unnoticeable salty taste. Clumps and temporary exposure to air are okay.
As long as sodium nitrite with >95% purity is available, avoid curing salts because they mostly contain table salt. Curing salts have many names such as Cure, Prague powder, Instacure, pink curing salt, or Pökelsalz; for example, Pink curing salt #1[1|2|3] or Pink curing salt #2[1|2|3]. While Prague powder #1 or #2 is only composed of 6.75% sodium nitrite, it’s possible to peacefully commit suicide using 250 grams Prague powder. There will be 15.625 grams sodium nitrite in Prague powder #1 and, in Prague powder #2, an additional 10 grams sodium nitrate, which will reduce to nitrite in human body. The unpleasant symptoms of sodium chloride toxicity develop within hours after the ingestion, while the unconsciousness due to sodium nitrite happens only within minutes after the ingestion. Also, if nitrite salts, such as sodium nitrite or potassium nitrite, become unavailable, you can use nitrate salts, such as sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate (referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre), because nitrate reduces to nitrite and nitric oxide in vivo.
The estimated lethal dose of sodium nitrite in adults is approximately 2.6 g (Katabami, Hayakawa & Gando, 2016). The recommended dose from the PPH is 25 grams; however, the dose was increased on different issues, from only 5, to 12, to 15. The PPH has increased the dose to 25 grams in 14 September 2019 revision. The dose has remained 25 grams up to 14 November 2019 revision. The dose can be summarized to 15 g for underweight persons, 20 g for healthy-weight persons, and 25 g for overweight persons.
SN dose (dissolved in water before intake)
• 15 – 25 g
Sodium nitrite density is 2.168 g/cm3. Assuming that one standard teaspoon holds about 5 cm3, the required dose is equivalent to 2 teaspoons of sodium nitrite.
In order to prevent vomiting in suicide attempts, dopamine blockers are used. The reasons for doing so is that the mechanism by which sodium nitrite induce nausea and vomiting are iron overload as well as NO interaction with dopaminergic neurotransmitters (Liu, Liang & Soong, 2019). One of the well-used dopamine blocker antiemetics is metoclopramide. Metoclopramide goes by many commercial names—namely, Reglan, Plasil, and Primperan. The disadvantages of metoclopramide are (1) having gastro-prokinetic properties, which empties the acidic stomach form sodium nitrite; and (2) extrapyramidal symptoms that are extremely rare in low doses and relieved with diphenhydramine.
Purchasing antiemetic will also be the bulk of the money spent during this method. It’s feasible to successfully commit suicide without antiemetics (Hideyuki Nushida, 2014); nevertheless, it’s possible to vomit hence fail (Joosen, Stolk & Henry, 2014).
Stat dose (60 minutes before SN intake)
• 3 * 10 mg metoclopramide
Ahead regimen (48 hours before SN intake)
• 10 mg metoclopramide every 8 hours (i.e., 3 times per day) starting 48 hours in advance
Because the peak plasma concentration happens at about 1 – 2 hours after a single oral dose of metoclopramide, there’s no significant advantage of going through the ahead regimen (except mentally preparing for the attempt).
Another popular choice of antiemetic is domperidone. Domperidone too goes by many commercial names—namely, Motilium. Considering the affinity values (Ki) at the D2 receptor (Tonini et al., 2004), the interchangeable dose of domperidone is 10 – 15 mg, reaches at peak plasma level 30 minutes following oral administration (Heykants et al., 1981).
Stat dose (30 minutes before SN intake)
• 2 * 10 mg domperidone
If you can’t find the two mentioned antiemetics, don’t lose hope. Other alternatives for antiemetic are olanzapine, alizapramide, chlorpromazine, and prochlorperazine. As a rule of thumb, for the stat dose each in each of the antiemetics, double up or triple up the therapeutic daily dose of the antiemetic. For example, for the stat dose, in case the leaflet of the antiemetic advises 6 mg twice a day, take 12 mg or 18 mg (if you’re confidence you’ll have no side effect). As mentioned earlier, serotonin antagonists only (e.g., ondansetron) or antihistamins only (e.g., diphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate) antiemetics are not effective in sodium nitrite suicide method.
If you are on any of the following antipsychotics, you don’t need to take any antiemetic, because they already function as an antiemetic. The dose needed will depend on whether you take it regularly, the dose you’re prescribed, and your weight. (Seeman, 2006), (Kusumi, Boku and Takahashi, 2014), and (Li, L. Snyder and E. Vanover, 2016) reported affinity values (Ki) at the D2 receptors of antipsychotics. The lower the numbers next to the drugs, the more powerful antiemetic the substance is.
|Drug class||D2 antagonism|
|Antiemetics||Domperidone (0.3–3.4 nM), Clebopride (2 nM), Metoclopramide (9.18 nM), Bromopride (14 nM), Alizapride (200 nM)|
|1st generation antipsychotics||Benperidol (0.027 nM), Spiperone (0.053 nM), Droperidol (0.25 nM), Trifuperidol (0.4 nM), Haloperidol (2.0 nM), Chlorpromazine (2.6 nM), Bromperidol (2.1 nM), Prochlorperazine (6–8 nM), Levosulpiride (27–134 nM), Pipamperone (120 nM)|
|2nd generation antipsychotics||Lurasidone (1.0 nM), Sestindole (2.7 nM), Paliperidone (2.8 nM), Risperidone (4.9 nM), Olanzapine (21 nM), Clozapine (144 nM), Quetiapine (245 nM)|
|Benzamide||Tiapride (320 nM)|
The above table proves that antipsychotic medicines actually facilitate suicide.
Using antacids (also known as acid regulators) is discouraged. The antacid section of Suicide Wiki is provided here only because you will encounter with antacids in the PPH. The PPH recommends decreasing your stomach’s fluid volume to make the sodium nitrite absorbed more quickly. This can be accomplished with drugs like ranitidine, famotidine, or cimetidine that reduce the stomach acid quickly. The recommended dose in the PPH is 800mg cimetidine (sold under the brand name Tagamet), which is equivalent to 3 – 4 * 75 mg ranitidine (sold under the brand name Zantac).
Stat dose (30 – 45 minutes before SN intake)
• 800 mg cimetidine (Tagamet)
• 3 * 75 mg ranitidine (Zantac)
The PPH previously recommended sodium bicarbonate as absorption accelerator. The PPH argued that sodium bicarbonate would raise the stomach’s fluid pH. The raise in stomach’s fluid pH hindered loss of consciousness in some patients—although it was expected, provided that the blood-pressure-lowering effect of orally ingested nitrite was abolished when test persons were pretreated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to raise gastric pH (Montenegro et al., 2016). Similar to sodium bicarbonate, the blood pressure-lowering effect of orally ingested nitrite is abolished by a proton pump inhibitor (Piknova & Schechter, 2017). Since the release of the October 2018 revision, the PPH suggests Tagamet (instead of sodium bicarbonate) and has misguidedly argued “this effect is not related to gastric pH, but rather to the production rate of acid.” While the PPH still incorrectly recommends using H2 receptor antagonists, such as cimetidine and ranitidine, simply not using them will result in a more peaceful death, owing to formation of nitric oxide, a vasodilator, in acidic (Malko, Kucernak & Lopes, 2016) gastric environment—in pH less than 6.51 (Pereira, Ferreira, Rocha, Barbosa & Laranjinha, 2013)—as shown in pathway A[1|2].
Without antacid: 3NaNO2 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + NaNO3 + 2NO + H2O
The PPH claims that, during a monitored suicide with sodium nitrite, the patient was unconscious at 12 minutes and dead by 42. In south China, two girls—in the morning, being fasted—drank water contaminated with sodium nitrite. They did not feel anything suspicious, did not vomit, and fainted in 10 minutes. A further case—Shawn Shatto, a member of the site—according to her mother, Jackie Bieber, died within ~5 hours[1|2|3|4|5], given that she took it at 11:47 a.m. However, the Biebers had implied before on a radio program at the Messick’s perfomace studio, A Parent’s Story-Shawn Shatto, that Jackie had found Shawn within ~3 hours. Jackie, working down the hall, had not heard any noises coming from Shawn’s room. Nor did the Biebers find any vomits. Moreoever, (Workum, Bisschops & van den Berg, 2019) reported two case reports: a 27-year-old man who was passed away 2 hours after the ingestion, despite rescue attempt—and a 31-year-old man who survived due to being found 15 minutes after the ingestion. Under the compulsion of anti-choicers, the authors added, “because of the unbearable symptoms associated with suffocation, sodium nitrite is an extremely inappropriate suicide agent,” omitting the fact that the loss of consciousness occurs in a couple of minutes. It’s worth mentioning that the mechanism of death is suffocation in many suicide methods—pentobarbitals, phenobarbitals, opioids, cyanide, chlorine, inert gases, carbon monoxide, and hanging, to name but a few. ("ACMT 2020 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts – New York, NY", 2020) published a case report of a 25-year-old man who ingested 15 g sodium nitrite. He immediately had second thoughts about the attempt and called an ambulance within 10 minutes of ingestion. On paramedic arrival, he was alert, deeply cyanotic and admitted to sodium nitrite ingestion. In the emergency department, 40 minutes post-ingestion, GCS = 4, he had ashen gray skin, pulse-oximetry saturation 60% on mask high-flow oxygen, pulse 180 bpm, and BP 91/45 mmHg. He recovered without complication.
Consequences of failure
The effects of this poisoning are completely reversible, and having any permanent damages is highly unlikely, should you be “saved” during your attempt. Because methemoglobin creation is a natural process in human body, G6PD enzyme works to transform it back into hemoglobin again. This process can be facilitated by using the antidote for sodium nitrite, methylene blue. There are cases of people recovering from sodium nitrite poisoning without any side effects (Katabami, Hayakawa & Gando, 2016). Minute dosage of methylene blue increases oxygen from fatal 20% to healthy 90% within 30―60 minutes. Even in those cases that the ambulance was called soon enough, surviving was not certain (Harvey, Cave & Chanwai, 2010). The patient had lactic acid levels 9.6 mmol/L, which is almost 6 mmol/L higher than the minimum levels to suffer from metabolic acidosis. The reason for such low chance of injury is the fact that the brain is protected during low O2 conditions by nitric oxide (Kolluru, Prasai, Kaskas, Letchuman & Pattillo, 2016). Release of NO locally results in a proportional increase in cerebral blood flow that compensates for the reduction in blood oxygen carrying capacity (Hare, Tsui, Crawford & Patel, 2013).
Success stories on the news
This is a comprehensive collection of news reports, arrange in chronological order, of beautiful souls who found peace using sodium nitrite suicide method. In spite of strict censorship regarding reporting suicide methods, we’re fortunate to be inspired by their love. Please feel free to read about their journey.
Story #1 ― The first story belongs to Ximena Knol, one of the pioneers in sodium nitrite suicide method. Ximena, 19, was a considerate, Dutch girl who suffered from depression and C-PTSD. She requested euthanasia, but it was denied. Being assiduous, she searched and found a chemical substance—sodium nitrite—to end her pain. In order to obtain the substance, Ximena had reported that she needed it for a school assignment so that she could purchase it online for €10.50 + €8.95 shipping cost. On 22 February 2018, at 3 p.m., she dissolved the sodium nitrite in a glass of water and drank it up with Naproxen, jeopardizing her attempt by sending an appreciation email to her psychologist. “Hi Marjan (the psychologist’s pseudonym) If all goes well, this method is very reliable and painless. I have taken it ... So if all goes well I will not be there anymore ... Thank you for all your good care.” Marjan, who saw the email in the morning, became concerned with the safety of Ximena. “Are you still there?” Marjan replied, at 10 a.m. After not receiving a response, her psychologist called the police. The police came to Ximena’s home. They couldn’t get in because the door was closed. A police officer called Ximena’s father, Randy, and gave a quick rundown of the situation. Randy called his daughter on his second phone, but she didn’t answer. The father asked if the officer hears her dog inside. “Yes,” the man said. “Break in,” Randy replied, nervously. “Good,” the officer responded, “I’m hanging up now.” A couple of minutes later, Ximena was found dead in her bed with a jar of sodium nitrite next to her bed. Her face was blue. Since she hadn’t taken dopamine blocker antiemetic, she’d vomited. Nevertheless, Ximena had thrived: she had passed away in the morning of 22 February 2018.
Story #2 ― Juanita Ainsley, 80, was a local artist who also worked as an occupational therapist and psychologist. Ainsley was a strong proponent of aid-in-dying legislation. On 25 May 2018, it was reported that she, earlier that week, had taken her life. Ainsley, who had been dealing with health issues, had ingested a sodium nitrate powder mixed with water; she had died the same day she was found.
Story #3 ― Min Mo was a 25-yea-old, South Korean boy who told his family that he’d go to the library at 3 p.m. on 30 May 2018. Min left his family and soon the world. He was found in a vacant lot in Yeongdeok-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, gloriously lying on his back with his face towards the sky with no one at his side. Next to his body, cell phone and sodium nitrite powder were found.
Story #4 ― A deceased body was found at 4 p.m. on 2 July 2018 behind the water tower on the hillside of the Tucheng park on the section of Mingde Road, Tucheng District, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Rotted and smelly, the body belonged to a 23-year-old man, hard to be identified. In his black bag, there was 1 can (500 grams) of sodium nitrite. The on-site police called back to the deceased’s mobile phone missed calls. It turned out to be the Taipei City Criminal Police. The deceased man had posted “Farewell” in a forum message a few days ago before traveling from his hometown. The post resulted in a user to report the case, but it was too late: he had departed this life.
Story #5 ― Joshua Barton, 29, had depression. Joshua was a student at Florida Polytechnic University in Lakeland. He decided to write a peaceful epilogue to his autobiography. On 5 December 2018 at 3:32 a.m, he handwrote a multi-page suicide note and put it in his room. His roommates reported that Joshua was missing. Later, he was found dead in a wooded area on the Lakeland campus, at about 6:45 p.m on 6 December 2018. Joshua had ended writing his life story before it is ended for him, with his dignity intact and in control of his own passing.
There was no trauma to the body, according to Dr. Stephen Nelson, medical examiner for the district. Dr. Nelson performed an autopsy the next day, and his office sent samples to the University of Florida Pathology Laboratory, which forwarded them to a laboratory in Pennsylvania for a toxicology analysis. The Medical Examiner’s Office received a report from UF in October 2019. “The analysis found the presence of sodium nitrite in the fluid of Barton’s eyes and in his stomach,” Dr. Stephen Nelson wrote in his report. “Residue was also found on a drinking cup in Barton’s dorm room. The autopsy found no presence of any common drugs of abuse,” Dr. Nelson concluded, determining that Joshua Barton intentionally ingested sodium nitrite when he committed suicide. Joshua Barton had intentionally took his own life.
Story #6 ― A 20-year-old girl in Bayamón, Puerto Rico, courageously elected to kill herself, a form of self-expression of her core values. She did so at 9:25 p.m. on 1 February 2019 by taking sodium nitrite. She is no longer in pain.
Story #7 ― 21-year-old Wira Wahyudi Sinuraya was a student at the University of Southampton, England. He ordered two 250g bags of sodium nitrate to his home in Honeysuckle Road. Those two bags, arrived in a package from Royal Mail, had been collected at the front door by his housemate. A couple of weeks later, Wira went on with his plan. At around 8 p.m. on 14 February 2019, 2 of Wira’s housemates, after not seeing him for a couple of days, knocked on his door, but they received no answer. Hence, they entered the room; Wira’s housemates found him unresponsive on his bed, so they called the ambulance service. Emergency services attended. Wira was pronounced dead at the scene. In his room, two 250g bags labeled sodium nitrate were found, and it was evident some of the contents had been taken from one of them. The discovery of the bags led to emergency services declaring a hazmat incident.
On 16 September 2019, an inquest into his death at Winchester Coroner’s Court heard the level of nitrite and nitrate in the student’s body was more than 100 times the expected concentration: based on level taken at the time of his post mortem, Wira had ingested at least 100 times the safe dose.
Story #8 ― Robert Laurie Coates, 17, of Marlow, England, was a charismatic boy whom everyone loved. The boy suffered from a number of treatable health issues and health anxiety. Because of his health issues, Robert couldn’t imagine living the perfect life that he had drawn out, so he sought the answer deep inside of himself. His health issues will be dragging him back for the the rest of his life (in his view). Having prepared his itinerary, Robert went to spend his final day in woodland near Spinfield Lane in the town, leaving his suicide note on his iPad. On his final day, 8 March 2019, Robert was last seen sitting at the base of a tree, wearing headphones, at 10 a.m. by a dog walker woman, who lived nearby. That night, the woman became aware of police that was conducting a search for a missing boy. With the help of the woman’s nephew, Robert’s body was found in the woods. He was sadly pronounced dead at 10:42 p.m. as a result of sodium nitrite toxicity.
News Article: 
Story #9 ― Shawn Alexandra Shatto, 25, of York Haven, Pennsylvania, was a shy girl who suffered from severe depression, anxiety, and agoraphobia. She spent her last two months on her cellphone, submerged into the Sanctioned Suicide forum. She created a user, named Kakabushi, and made a few number of posts. The 25-year-old girl was thrilled that she wouldn’t have to work in her dead-end job at Amazon retail after her suicide. She wanted to stop being a means. She also asked a question about the antiemetic regimen, because, determined to not be defeated on this suicide attempt, she’d missed a dose. She decided to drop the ahead regimen and switch to the stat dose.
On the day of her departure, 22 May 2019, Shawn’s mother, Jackie Bieber, who was working down the hall, saw her daughter at about 11 a.m.; her daughter seemed fine. Shawn went back to her room and started the process by taking a high dose of 60 mg Primperan, which could have caused EPS symptoms. She took Tagamet pretty soon afterward with no benzos or alcohol. While she was waiting 40 minutes to take 15 grams sodium nitrite, several members wished her good luck and peace—along with a member who reminded Shawn that her attempt might not 100% work as a result of being found too early. In her last post, terrified of her mother who could have walked in on her, she took the solution. After that, the members continued wishing her safe travel. A couple of hours later, Jackie, went to check on her daughter. The mother knocked, but she didn’t hear anything. Jackie opened the door only to find out Shawn was lying on the floor. Shawn’s body was blue and cold to the touch. No pulse was felt. Shawn was not breathing. CPR was performed. 911. It was too late; at that point, she was gone.
Goodbye thread:  Mirror  Mirror News articles:                         News videos:     News podcasts:      
Story #10 ― This is the story of a seafarer, Vittore Pecchini, who sailed for the uncharted waters. Pecchini was born in Montecchio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy, on 24 August 1961. Graduated in philosophy at Bologna, Pecchini had sailed around the world, living an adventurous life in symbiosis with the sea. He acquired professional naval titles and became a sailing and diving instructor. Pecchini was an exceptional person: a cultured, sensitive, enlightened, visionary, combative, and energetic man who spoke six languages. For 4 years he had been directing the entire professional technical center of the city. From 2019, he had also taken over the management of the classical, artistic, and musical Marco Polo high school in Venice. From that point, stemmed a continuous derogations between requirements and regulations relating to the static safety of the structures, the number of registrations—and, above all, the amalgamation of classes.
Pecchini was being stroked and harassed by teachers, parents, and pupils. “I am tired,” said Pecchini just 2 days before his suicide attempt, “everyone at school is attacking me, parents, and teachers.” Burned out and exhausted, he no longer saw a reason to keep going on.
On 25 May 2019, after the regatta between institutes took place in the morning at Sacca San Biagio, he returned to his home in Lido di Venezia. The principle of Marco Polo high school drank sodium nitrite solution inside his camper, parked on a public road (at the corner of Lungomare D'Annunzio and Via Francesco Duodo in San Nicolò, not far from his home). After drinking the solution, he phoned his wife to say goodbye; consequently, the principle was rescued at about 5:30 p.m., but his rescue attempt by doctors was in vain. He died during transport to the hospital, in the ambulance where the doctors tried strenuously to resuscitate him. He died 3 days before the strike organized against him, long after his hopes for the school had been perished in tundra of his lost dreams.
Story #11 ― Inezi Scychocki Serafine, 50, of Erechim, Brazil, took 20 grams sodium nitrite diluted in 200 ml water. She took the solution at 2:50 p.m. on 2 August 2019. Despite being taken taken by her son to the São Camilo Clinic, she peacefully passed away. One of the news articles that reported her success was deleted from the Internet, but the archives  are still available.
Story #12 ― Ashley Walker, 25, had previously taken overdoses, including ingesting anti-freeze over several days, but he had failed. Also, he had expressed suicidal thoughts to mental health specialists. He had been offered assessments on a number of occasions, although he had declined. When one was finally taken, it was ruled he did not suffer from acute mental issues, and he, at the time, expressed no suicidal intent.
In August 2019, Ashley Walker took a lethal dose of sodium nitrite at his home on Oaks Road in Kenilworth. He wanted the relief of not being here but feared the darkness alone. The 25-year-old called emergency services, and, when the ambulance crew arrived, he was unconscious. They provided Ashley with oxygen and said his levels of consciousness showed slight improvement as his limbs began to move. But the crew was told to leave the house by the ambulance operations manager who believed they were dealing with a spillage rather than the swallowing of the substance. Ashley embraced his death, the void, alone and uncared-for. He was left for some 45 minutes until the fire service arrived. He was given CPR for 15 minutes but was later pronounced dead. And that’s how Ashley found peace.
There is an antidote to counteract the sodium nitrate but paramedics did not routinely carry it. Warwickshire senior coroner, Sean McGovern, said in his closing statement he would consider making a “future death report” in relation to the “communication breakdown” between the medical teams. To a West Midlands Ambulance Service representative he said, “You said there was a real chance of survival which I agree with. There is an antidote effective if used in the first hour, although we don’t know when he took the sodium nitrate. There was a prospect he might have survived, but I can’t say with absolute certainty.”
Story #13 ― Abhishek Saxena (45), his wife (42), their two twins (14), as well as Abhishek’s mother (85) lived withdrawn but happily together in posh Apollo DB City in Lasudia, Indore, India. Unlike Abhishek’s mother, both Abhishek and his wife, Priti Saxena, did not get out of the house a lot. The parents worked at home from their computers.
Abhishek, a senior software engineer, lost his job with an IT company. Under the stress of losing his job, Abhishek also lost lakhs of rupees in online trading. Abhishek had a debt of millions, and his ATM card was blocked due to high transitions. The engineer felt ashamed to asked for money from his relatives. He was a man in the lowest social class in his mid-years. Although his wife, Priti Saxena, was also working with a multinational e-commerce company, she wasn’t earning enough. Apparently, she too had lost her job. Abhishek and Priti had their twins, Aditi and Advik, enrolled in good schools. At the same time, the two twins were continuously sick. The family’s income was suddenly lost, yet the expenses remained the same. Abhishek and Preity came to a conclusion with no dispute.
The prudent family had no conversation with anyone in the society. Becuase the only life the family knew was no longer possible to live, having unimaginably painful alternatives, the parents made an honorable choice in which Abhishek’s role was to research and obtain a peaceful way out—sodium nitrite (not sodium nitrate that was misreported)—which he ordered it online on 16 September 2019. Abhishek and Priti were compassionate parents who always kept their children close. Despite being destitute, the conscientious parents decided to take Aditi and Advik to a luxurious vacation in order to make some last good memories.
On 25 September 2019, Abhishek drove about 40 minutes to take his family to their final destination: Crescent Water Park in Khudail, a famous resort and spa built under the mountain of Devgudariya, Indore. At 3 p.m., after checking in at the resort, the whole family moved into room number 211, which they had booked two days ago.
The family made a phone call around 8:30 p.m. Abhishek told his mother that the children were sick, so he’d take them for a walk. He assured his mother that when he returns, he’ll pay obeisance to the father. At 10 p.m., a call at reception from room number 211 ordered 2 bottles of water. 2 bottles of water were taken to room number 211, and that was the last interaction the 4 residents of the room had with the outside.
Being a software engineer, Abhishek had anticipated that all social sites would be searched soon after the incident. Therefore, he had deleted his own e-mail and social media accounts, his wife’s, and his children’s. Even he had removed the photos from the number that he had given to the guard and people of DB City.
The children couldn’t live without their parents. Having convinced everyone to commit suicide, Abhishek gave them 10 antiemetic pills from a strip of pills that he had bought earlier. Then, the foresightful engineer used a spoon and a small weighing machine (weighing fork) to measure a dose of sodium nitrite. He left the chemical box of sodium nitrite next to the weighing machine, in addition to the pills and the spoon, on the nightstand. Abhishek and Priti helped their 14-year-old twins to eternally sleep by giving them a fixed dose of sodium nitrite. Knowing how peaceful it was, the parents followed the path of their beloved children shortly after. All went slowly to sleep. They left no suicide note.
Hours Passed. No sound came from the room.
In the morning of 26 September 2019, buffet prepared breakfast. But no one came out from room number 211 to have breakfast. As the room’s door remained closed at noon, the hotel staff grew restlessness. Because 20 hours had passed and no one came out of room number 211, at 6 p.m., the resort’s manager, along with the hotel staff, opened the room’s lock with the master key. In shock, they found 4 corpses: spouses in one room and their twins in another room. There was foam from every corpse’s mouth. Abhishek was lying on the bed, as if he was talking to his wife for the last time and contemplating when taking his last breath. Furthermore, the bodies of his wife and children were also in such situation, as if they did not feel any suffering before dying. Neither their bed sheets had been shrunk nor had their blankets been removed. There was not even a wrinkle on their beds. Poor family had peacefully passed away.
In a sense, the man and the woman had the right to give birth to 2 children—legally, under any circumstances. Several years later, Abhishek helped Saxena to have 2 late-aborations; then, Abhishek and Saxena practiced what they preached: aborted themselves.
When the police team reached the resort, police investigators found that the deceaseds’ nails had turned blue—without any bruises on the deceaseds’ bodies, nor any signs of conflict. Police seized a laptop, a tablet, as well as three mobiles—and police technical experts engaged in opening the password-protected devices to found more information. Police also scanned bank account details, emails, and details on the engineer’s laptop and their mobile phones to find out reasons for suicide. On 28 September 2019, after the postmortem, the police handed over the dead bodies to the deceaseds’ families. With the consent of deceaseds’ families, the cremation and the funeral were held in Delhi.
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Story #14 ― Brett Stevens, from Midlands, England, lived in Stoke-on-Trent. He was 28 when he forged a suicide pact with a 24-year-old woman, from the Netherlands. Both of them no longer had a life perspective yet had something special going on for their lives: they had found someone for the their last days of life. The pair, who were strangers, met online and agreed to book a holiday home. They book a holiday home, an AirBnb cottage, in Scotland and traveled there.
It’s not known when Brett and the Dutch woman arrived at the cottage, located at Mergie Bothy. The cottage was a two-bedroom self-catering holiday home in the grounds of Mergie Castle Estate–home of the Bogton Clydesdales, one of Scotland’s largest stud farms. The stylishly furbished cottage—advertised on the AirBnB website as being available for rent at £55 a night—lies next to the Peterkins’ mansion, Mergie House. Vic and Pearl Peterkin own the remote house in Rickarton, Aberdeenshire. Mr Peterkin, 61, is MD of building firm Peterkin Homes and also breeds horses. On AirBnB, his wife says she and her hubby are “usually around” to help guests renting their property. She adds, “We try to give guests the chance to see the ‘real’ Scotland.”
Lying alongside each other in the cottage, Brett Stevens and the Dutch woman met the end of their lives using sodium nitrite. They headed to what comes after death.
At around 1:30 p.m. on Thursday, 5 December 2019, police were called to the rural cottage, after a cleaner raised the alarm when they could not access the property. Reportedly, Vic and Pearl Peterkin had found the bodies. Police in Scotland treated their deaths as non-suspicious and officially investigated the double-suicide. A police source said firefighters were later called to the scene after suspected harmful chemicals were discovered at the property. Their next of kin were informed. A Police Scotland spokesman said, “Police were called to the property after two people—a man aged 28, and a woman, aged 24—were found within. Their next-of-kin have been informed.” Two uniformed cops remained at the site, and Detective Inspector Sam Buchan said, “Our thoughts are with the family and friends of the man and woman who have sadly died. A report will be sent to the procurator fiscal (the Scottish equivalent of a coroner) in due course. Officers remain at the property and I would like to thank members of the community for their patience whilst our inquiries continue.” The identity of the woman was not revealed.
North Staffordshire assistant coroner Sarah Murphy said, “Brett Stevens died on December 5 at a holiday cottage in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire. He was identified by police officers and the brief circumstances are that he was staying in a holiday cottage in Scotland. The presumed cause of death is sodium nitrate toxicity.” The inquest, which was held at North Staffordshire Coroner’s Court, has now been adjourned to a later date.
A shocked neighbor said, “There was a lot of activity. I went over to check that the family were OK but a policeman stopped me on the driveway. It’s very, very sad to think two people have died.” Peterkin’s listing on the AirBnB website was pulled down on 6 December 2019. The Peterkins declined to comment.
- Health status: Sodium nitrite suicide method, as is, effectively kills whether old people or healthy Olympic champions. Even if you do have chronic gastritis, that’s not going to slow your ability to digest and absorb a simple liquid like an SN/H2O solution.
- Medical conditions: Peptic ulcers are sores that line your stomach or the first part of your small intestine. Any irritant that comes into contact with an ulcer will be very painful. You’ll be needing treatment for about 2 weeks to let it heal. Sodium nitrite enhances of islet blood flow and treats peptic ulcers (Nyström et al., 2012).
- Testing the drugs: If you have decided to use a particular antiemetic, it is strongly advised to take a test dose before your attempt to see if it has a negative reaction with you. This testing is to avoid any unwanted surprises on your final day.
- Fasting: Fasting for 4–8 hours is strongly recommended so that your stomach feels empty. 4 hours, depending on your metabolism, might be enough. Some people have medical conditions that mean fasting has a negative effect on them. Try to avoid eating anything large and heavy. Avoid drinking anything two hours prior to drinking the sodium―except plain water, if you need to.
- Pain killers: When sodium nitrite starts to work, your blood pressure will drop; thus, you may get a mild headache. To counteract this headache, any regular pain killer will stop or reduce the pain before it starts. Paracetamol or ibuprofen will work. 2 or 3 times of the therapeutic dose.
- Sedatives, hypnotics, and opioids: It is only natural to feel extremely anxious during this event. Pharmaceutical sedatives are the recommended way to reduce anxiety and induce sleep. Or perhaps something that you personally know would work, too. If using sedatives, it’s suggested to take the prescribed dose 1 hour before drinking the sodium nitrite. Antidepressants are good; benzodiazepines or z-drugs are the recommended choice. You can first test small dosage beforehand to know when to take the medicine, because if you take them too soon, you may fall asleep before drinking sodium nitrite. Benzodiazepines potency, tolerance, onset (i.e., how quick), duration (i.e., how long) vary greatly. Some benzodiazepines affects within 10 minutes, while others take 1 hour, and this changes individually. Moreover, z-drugs cause more drowsiness and reduce physical sensations, but they’re mild to moderate in anxiety reduction. (Benzodiazepines more powerful in this regard.) Most opiates, such as heroin, that have a selective or predominant mu agonist activity inhibit gastric motility and delay gastric emptying. So opiates are highly recommended.
- Beta blockers: One of the symptoms you may get is a fast heart rate (i.e., tachycardia); that is, your heart will beat faster as if you have done some physical exercise or you are watching a scary film. Tachycardia is completely normal and painless for the sodium nitrite poisoning process. For reducing the heart rate, in 2019, Philip Nitschke advertised 2 grams of propranolol[1|2] be crushed and dissolved into the sodium nitrite mixture. 2 grams of propranolol is withing the range of the toxic dose of propanolol. (Taking 3–4x the regular dose is enough.) In 24 March 2020 revision of the PPeH, the propranolol dose was reduced to 1 gram. Propanolol is somewhat of a luxury item. And the effort of purchasing it outweigh any significant effect on you not being distressed. Propanolol is excessive for sodium nitrite suicide method and only acts to eliminate a symptom (fast heart rate) that does not hurt at all.
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): If you are taking PPIs (e.g., esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) for gastric ulcers, you should stop taking them 2 weeks prior your attempt. See the Antacid section for more information.
- Alcohol: Taking a large amount of alcohol prior is not recommended, because it may increase the chance of vomiting.
- Diet: Foods (and beverages, including the red wine) rich in polyphenols, in a way reminiscent of ascorbate, have been shown to boost NO production from nitrite at acidic pH in the human stomach. Upon the consumption of lettuce (as a rich source of nitrite) and of red wine, apples or black tea (as rich sources of polyphenols) the intragastric NO levels in humans rise by about three orders of magnitude (Pereira, Ferreira, Rocha, Barbosa & Laranjinha, 2013).
- Water: It is important that you only use plain water to mix the sodium nitrite drink. Do not consider using fruit juice or carbonated drinks to make the taste better, because they’ll turn nitrite into nitrate.
- Preparing the sodium nitrite solution: Sodium nitrite is transported in all climates without any heating or cooling. Sodium nitrite is simply not reactive – only to moisture, acid, or extreme heat. It is important that all of the sodium nitrite is dissolved. If there are crystals still at the bottom of the glass, add small bits of water and keep stirring. The aim is to use as little water as possible. The water solution is potent for few hours. Normal temperatures are fine. Sodium nitrite is transported in trucks and airplanes, neither heated nor cooled.
- Putting sodium nitrite into capsule: The aim is to flood your bloodstream with the right amount of sodium nitrite as quickly as possible so you do not feel any symptoms for any longer than you need to. This is why using the sodium nitrite in water is recommended above any other method. Putting sodium nitrite into capsule only removes the point of the salty taste in your mouth. People have still been sick after taking capsules, owing to the fact taht the human body will still react to sodium nitrite regardless of being in water or capsules. The sodium nitrite in capsule will be slowly released into your system, extending the time to death significantly.
- Taste: With the intention of removing the afterwards taste, some people use a strong mouthwash to numb their tongue, taste buds before or after drinking the solution, or a small piece of confectionery after drinking the solution.
- DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide): DMSO enhance transdermal absorption of toxicants and contaminants on the skin. For those who couldn’t acquire antiemetic, a forum member suggested usign DMSO instead of water to enhance poison absorption and reduce the risk of vomiting. The solution can be ingested, be applied topically, or be used as an enema. If the decision be to apply the sodium nitrite dissolved in DMSO on the skin, the experience will be similar to resting in a bathtub filled with warm water and having borax accidentally fallen in the bathtub. Dissolving 20 grams sodium nitrite in DMSO is depicted here[1|2|3]. If you have trouble dissolving sodium nitrite in DMSO at room temperature, get a bucket of warm or hot water and put the DMSO bottle in the bucket to heat it up. DMSO tastes horrible (way worse than smell) and slight burns in chest—albeit odorless, tasteless DMSO is available.
- IV (intravenous): You need hospital equipment to inject sodium nitrite. You may fail, if you miscalculate your plan (Johannesen, 2018).
- Enema: Sodium nitrite can be absorbed in large intestine.
- Seizure: It is possible but not guaranteed. The process of the body shutting down could produce a seizure. They are normally limited events and last between a few seconds or up to 2 minutes. There are a few types of seizures with different symptoms. The one you may have in mind (often seen in Hollywood films for the dramatic effect) is called a Grand Mal Seizure which normally only happens with epilepsy. If concerned, make sure the place where you will be resting is cleared of all objects so you don’t knock them over.
- Extra glasses of sodium nitrite: some members prefer to have a few extra glasses of sodium nitrite prepared, in case of vomiting.
- Accidental death: Sodium nitrite has been commonly used for committing suicide. For instance, a 44-year-old woman in China attempted suicide. Also, there are several cases of intentional homicide, plus first-degree and second-degree murder using sodium nitrite. For example, a 61-year-old woman murder her 59-years-old husband  to collect the life insurance beneficiary. There are numerous reports of those who accidentally died due to ingestion of sodium nitrite in place of another food ingredient—namely, table salt;for example, in . In one case, 3 patients had to undergo a simple food intolerance test. 1 patient that did not vomit died. Moreover, In the north of Tajikistan, in Khudzhand, four inhabitants died of sodium nitrate New Year’s fawn, 4 people died among whom was a 67-year-old chef, 8 were hospitalized from whom 6 of them remained in the hospital. A lethal dose of sodium nitrate was found in the victims’ bodies, and a saltpeter container was found at the scene. How it got in food can only be guessed. The case was initiated from “Contributing to Death Due to Carelessness.” In another case, a man in his 60s mistook a bottle of sodium nitrite with water . The victim was pronounced dead at the hospital in 2 hours and 30 minutes after ingesting the sodium nitrite solution. Of course, in accidental cases, there was no clues to suggest suicide (including history of suicidal ideation or attempt, suicide note, antiemetic, and antacid).
- Phytic acid (also known as inositol hexaphosphate or IP6) is found naturally in foods like Brazil nuts, pumpkin seed, almonds, and beans, as well as food supplements. (Matteson and Taketa, 1979) reported that phytic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, decreases the reaction rate of methemoglobin reduction by NADH-methemoglobin. However, the non-enzymic, as well as enzymic, rate of reduction of methemoglobin is enhanced by organic phosphates such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and inositol hexaphosphate. Ascorbic acid too enhances the rate of reduction of methemoglobin. Ascorbic acid is the alternative choice for treating methemoglobinemia.
Where to find
APC Pure took a pro-life stance and wished their link to be removed. The rest of retailers that have been listed on Suicide Wiki have been threatened or intimidated by anti-choicers to stop supplying the resources. In an attempt to suppress the freedom of choice, the U.K. government regulated sodium nitrite, putting it under the category of reportable substances: the purchaser is not required to hold any license to acquire it, but the supplier has the duty to report to police any transaction they consider to be in any way suspicious. According to a forum member in the U.K., police have confiscated their sodium nitrite at home. A similar decision was made in the Netherlands; that is, manufacturers and sellers of substances that people use to put an end to their lives (nitrite and azide) are no longer supplying them to individuals. They are going to keep an eye on the sale of these substances and share this information with each other in order to intervene if necessary. On 28 May 2019, according to a survey by Cooperative Last Will 1,500 individuals had a means of suicide. On 11 July 2019, a Dutch daily morning newspaper reported that those 1500 people who have sodium nitrite at home have ordered it online—so the addresses are known. Moreover, some members have tried to buy sodium nitrite on eBay but have been banned by anti-choicers. Retailers ask, “due to some problems we have had with customer misuse of this product, we now ask for the intended use in order to ensure our customers safety. What is your intended use of this product?” Every company provided from the Peaceful Pill eHandbook does not sell it to Canada, especially if you do not have a business. Concerning the ongoing restrictions on choices and unlimited shelf-life of the resources (kept in room temperature, sealed in a simple plastic container[1|2]), it’s wise to acquire the resources—lest they become scarce. Everyday is now or never.
Sodium Nitrite (Europe)
Acid Regulators (Europe)
Sodium Nitrite (North America)
Antiemetic (North America)
Acid Regulators (North America)
Sodium Nitrite (Oceania)
Acid Regulators (Oceania)
Because anti-choicers deterred retailers, you’re presented with the spells to legally acquire the medicine. Metoclopramide is super easy to get in the U.S. Just shoot an email or call your doctor. No office or ER visit is required. Nor are lab tests required.
|What you need||How to get it|
|Metoclopramide||say you have a cold, suffer from indigestion, food stays in your stomach, and your coughing bouts make you want to vomit. A forum member used the magical words[1|2|3] to deliver[1|2|3] their metoclopramide to the pharmacy. (Neither the husband nor the patient had taken metoclopramide before; it was a lie.)|
|Benzodiazepines (optional)||say you have severe insomnia, panic attacks, and anxiety.|
|Ondansetron (does not help with sodium nitrite method)||say you suffer from food poisoning, can’t keep food down, feel nauseated, and vomit; but alert, no fever, not vomiting blood or bile. Ondansetron (Zofran) is definitely the first line of treatment for food poisoning without serious alarming symptoms.|
- Sodium nitrite threads on Sanctioned Suicide forum
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- Heykants, J., Hendriks, R., Meuldermans, W., Michiels, M., Scheygrond, H., & Reyntjens, H. (1981). On the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in animals and man IV. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous domperidone and its bioavailability in man following intramuscular, oral and rectal administration. European Journal Of Drug Metabolism And Pharmacokinetics, 6(1), 61-70. doi: 10.1007/bf03189516 [PubMed: 7250152][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5]
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- Malko, D., Kucernak, A., & Lopes, T. (2016). Performance of Fe–N/C Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts toward NO2–, NO, and NH2OH Electroreduction: From Fundamental Insights into the Active Center to a New Method for Environmental Nitrite Destruction. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 138(49), 16056-16068. doi: 10.1021/jacs.6b09622 [Full Text]
- Pereira, C., Ferreira, N., Rocha, B., Barbosa, R., & Laranjinha, J. (2013). The redox interplay between nitrite and nitric oxide: From the gut to the brain. Redox Biology, 1(1), 276-284. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2013.04.004 [PMC: 3757698]
- Workum, J., Bisschops, L., & van den Berg, M. (2019). [Autointoxication with ’suicide powder’]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 163 pii: D3369 [PubMed: 30875162][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6|7]
- ACMT 2020 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts – New York, NY. (2020). Journal Of Medical Toxicology. doi: 10.1007/s13181-020-00759-7 [Full Text]
- Harvey, M., Cave, G., & Chanwai, G. (2010). Fatal methaemoglobinaemia induced by self-poisoning with sodium nitrite. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 22(5), 463-465. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2010.01335.x [PubMed: 21040485][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5]
- Kolluru, G., Prasai, P., Kaskas, A., Letchuman, V., & Pattillo, C. (2016). Oxygen tension, H2S, and NO bioavailability: is there an interaction?. Journal Of Applied Physiology, 120(2), 263-270. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00365.2015 [Full Text]
- Hare, G., Tsui, A., Crawford, J., & Patel, R. (2013). Is methemoglobin an inert bystander, biomarker or a mediator of oxidative stress—The example of anemia?. Redox Biology, 1(1), 65-69. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2012.12.003 [PMC: 3757671]
- Nyström, T., Ortsäter, H., Huang, Z., Zhang, F., Larsen, F., & Weitzberg, E. et al. (2012). Inorganic nitrite stimulates pancreatic islet blood flow and insulin secretion. Free Radical Biology And Medicine, 53(5), 1017-1023. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.06.031 [PubMed: 22750508][Full Text: 1|2|3|4|5|6]